NOMENCLATURE

Determining and adopting nomenclature in VDOS is an on­going process, utilizing the Nomina Embryologica Veterinaria (NEV 2017), Nomina Histologica Veterinaria (NHV 2017) and Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV 2017). The below mentioned terms, abbreviations and definitions relating to structures, diseases and treatment procedures relevant to the mouth, face, head and upper neck were approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the American Veterinary Dental College (AVDC). It is suggested to use them in dental and medical records, regardless of whether they are in paper or electronic format.

"Speaking one languague."

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Veterinary Dentistry, Equine Dentistry and Beakology

  • Veterinary dentistry: Veterinary dentistry is a discipline within the scope of veterinary practice that involves the professional consultation, evaluation, diagnosis, prevention, treatment (non-­surgical, surgical or related procedures) of conditions, diseases, and disorders of the oral cavity and maxillofacial area and their adjacent and associated structures; it is provided by a licensed veterinarian, within the scope of his/her education, training and experience, in accordance with the ethics of the profession and applicable law.

  • Equine dentistry: Equine dentistry is the practice of veterinary dentistry performed in equids (genus Equus: horses, asses and zebras).

  • Beakology: Beakology is the branch of science dealing with the anatomy, physiology and pathology (including diagnosis and treatment of such pathology) of the beak and associated tissues of vertebrate animals that have beaks or beak-­like structures. [Note that the term 'beakistry' has also been used.]

 

Dental Anatomy, Numbering and Nomenclature of Teeth

  • Pulp cavity: Space within the tooth

  • Pulp chamber: Space within the crown of a tooth

  • Root canal: Space within the root of a tooth

  • Apical foramen: Opening at the apex of a tooth, through which neurovascular structures pass to and from the dental pulp

  • Apical delta: Multiple apical foramina forming a branching pattern at the apex of a tooth reminiscent of a river delta when sectioned and viewed through a microscope that occurs in some brachyodont teeth

  • Ameloblasts: Epithelial cells involved in the formation of enamel (amelogenesis)

  • Enamel (E): Mineralized tissue covering the crown of brachyodont teeth

  • Anatomical crown (CR/AC): That part of a tooth that is coronal to the cementoenamel junction (or anatomical root)

  • Clinical crown (CR/CC): That part of a tooth that is coronal to the gingival margin; also called erupted crown in equines

  • Anatomical root (RO/AR): That part of a tooth that is apical to the cementoenamel junction (or anatomical crown)

  • Clinical root (RO/CR): That part of a brachyodont tooth that is apical to the gingival margin

  • Cementoenamel junction: Area of a tooth where cementum and enamel meet

  • Reserve crown (CR/RC): That part of the crown of a hypsodont tooth that is apical to the gingival margin

  • The incisors will be referred to as (right or left) (maxillary or mandibular) first, second, or third incisors numbered from the midline.

  • In the cat, the tooth immediately distal to the maxillary canine is the second premolar, the tooth immediately distal to the mandibular canine is the third premolar.

  • Tooth Numbering: The existence of the conventional anatomical names of teeth as well as the various tooth numbering systems is recognized. The correct anatomical names of teeth are (right or left), (maxillary or mandibular), (first, second, third or fourth), (incisor, canine, premolar, molar), as applicable, written out in full or abbreviated. The modified Triadan system is presently considered to be the tooth numbering system of choice in veterinary dentistry; gaps are left in the numbering sequence where there are missing teeth (for example, the first premolar encountered in the feline left maxilla is numbered 206, not 205. The two lower right premolars are 407 and 408, not 405 and 406). Both the use of anatomical names and the modified Triadan system are acceptable for recording and storing veterinary dental information. The use of anatomical names in publications is required by many leading journals and is recommended. It offers the advantage of veterinary dental publications being understandable to other health professionals and scientists with an interest in veterinary dentistry.

  • Tooth (T): Hard structure embedded in the jaw; used for biting and chewing

  • Incisor (I): Incisor tooth

  • Canine (C): Canine tooth

  • Pemolar (P): Premolar tooth

  • Molar (M): Molar tooth

  • Alveolus (A): Socket in the jaw for a tooth root or reserve crown (plural: alveoli)

  • Crown (C): Coronal portion of a tooth

  • Root (RO): Radicular portion of a tooth

  • Apex (AP): End of the root or reserve crown (plural: apices)

  • Deciduous and permanent are the anatomically correct terms to denote the two generations of teeth in diphyodont species.

  • It is acceptable to use “primary“ instead of deciduous in communicating with clients.

  • Deciduous tooth (DT): Primary tooth replaced by a permanent (secondary) tooth

  • The deciduous dentition period is that period during which only deciduous teeth are present.

  • The mixed dentition period is that period during which both deciduous and permanent teeth are present.

  • The permanent dentition period is that period during which only permanent teeth are present.

  • The term “persistent deciduous tooth” is etymologically correct, although the term “retained deciduous tooth” is commonly used. The latter term, however, can be confused with an unerupted deciduous tooth.

 

Surfaces of Teeth and Directions in the Mouth

  • Vestibular/Buccal/Labial: Vestibular is the correct term referring to the surface of the tooth facing the vestibule or lips; buccal and labial are acceptable alternatives.

  • Lingual/Palatal: Lingual: The surface of a mandibular or maxillary tooth facing the tongue is the lingual surface. Palatal can also be used when referring to the lingual surface of maxillary teeth.

  • Mesial/Distal: Mesial and distal are terms applicable to tooth surfaces. The mesial surface of the first incisor is next to the median plane; on other teeth it is directed toward the first incisor. The distal surface is opposite from the mesial surface.

  • Rostral/Caudal: Rostral and caudal are the positional and directional anatomical terms applicable to the head in a sagittal plane in non-human vertebrates. Rostral refers to a structure closer to, or a direction toward the most forward structure of the head. Caudal refers to a structure closer to, or a direction toward the tail. Anterior and posterior are the synonymous terms used in human dentistry.

 

Tooth Formation Abnormalities

  • Persistent deciduous tooth (DT/P): A deciduous tooth that is present when it should have exfoliated

  • Supernumerary tooth (T/SN): Presence of an extra tooth (also called hyperdontia)

  • Hypodontia (HYP): Developmental absence of few teeth

  • Oligodontia (OLI): Developmental absence of numerous teeth

  • Anodontia (ANO): Failure of all teeth to develop

  • Macrodontia (T/MAC): Tooth/teeth are larger than normal

  • Microdontia (T/MIC): Tooth/teeth are smaller than normal

  • Transposition (T/TRA): Two teeth that have exchanged position

  • Fusion (T/FUS): Combining of adjacent tooth germs and resulting in partial or complete union of the developing teeth; also called synodontia

  • Concrescence (T/CCR): Fusion of the roots of two or more teeth at the cementum level

  • Fused roots (T/FDR): Fusion of roots of the same tooth

  • Gemination (T/GEM): A single tooth bud’s attempt to divide partially (cleft of the crown) or completely (presence of an identical supernumerary tooth); also called twinning

  • Supernumerary root (T/SR): Presence of an extra root

  • Dilaceration (T/DIL): Disturbance in tooth development, causing the crown or root to be abruptly bent or crooked

  • Dens invaginatus (T/DEN): Invagination of the outer surface of a tooth into the interior, occurring in either the crown (involving the pulp chamber) or the root (involving the root canal); also called dens in dente

  • Enamel pearl (E/P): Small, nodular growth on the root of a tooth made of enamel with or without a small dentin core and sometimes a covering of cementum

  • Unerupted tooth (T/U): Tooth that has not perforated the oral mucosa

  • Embedded tooth (T/E): Unerupted tooth covered in bone whose eruption is compromised by lack of eruptive force

  • Impacted tooth (T/I): Unerupted or partially erupted tooth whose eruption is prevented by contact with a physical barrier

  • Dentigerous cyst (DTC): Odontogenic cyst initially formed around the crown of a partially erupted or unerupted tooth; also called follicular cyst or tooth-containing cyst; removal is abbreviated DTC/R

  • Folliculitis (FOL): Inflammation of the follicle of a developing tooth

  • Pericoronitis (PEC): Inflammation of the soft tissues surrounding the crown of a partially erupted tooth

 

Enamel Abnormalities

  • Abrasion (AB): Tooth wear caused by contact of a tooth with a non-dental object

  • Attrition (AT): Tooth wear caused by contact of a tooth with another tooth

  • Erosion (ER): Demineralization of tooth substance due to external acids

  • Caries (CA): Degradation of dental hard tissue caused by demineralization due to acids released during bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates

  • Enamel defect (ED): Lesion affecting the structural integrity of enamel

  • Enamel hypoplasia (E/H): Refers to inadequate deposition of enamel matrix. This can affect one or several teeth and may be focal or multifocal. The crowns of affected teeth can have areas of normal enamel next to areas of hypoplastic or missing enamel.

  • Enamel hypomineralization (E/HM): Refers to inadequate mineralization of enamel matrix. This often affects several or all teeth. The crowns of affected teeth are covered by soft enamel that may be worn rapidly.

 

Tooth Fracture Classification

  • The tooth fracture (T/FX) classification shown below can be applied for brachyodont and hypsodont teeth, which covers domesticated species and many wild species. Fractures of teeth in some wild species may not fit into this classification because of differences in the tissues present in the teeth.

  • Enamel infraction (T/FX/EI): Incomplete fracture (crack) of the enamel without loss of tooth substance

  • Enamel fracture (T/FX/EF): Fracture with loss of crown substance confined to the enamel

  • Uncomplicated crown fracture (T/FX/UCF): Fracture of the crown that does not expose the pulp

  • Complicated crown fracture (T/FX/CCF): Fracture of the crown that exposes the pulp

  • Uncomplicated crown-root fracture (T/FX/UCRF): Fracture of the crown and root that does not expose the pulp

  • Complicated crown-root fracture (T/FX/CCRF): Fracture of the crown and root that exposes the pulp

  • Root fracture (T/FX/RF): Fracture involving the root

  • Retained root or reserve crown (RTR): Presence of a root remnant or reserve crown remnant

  • Retained crown-root or clinical crown-reserve crown or clinical crown-reserve crown and root (RCR): Presence of a crown-root remnant (in brachyodont teeth), clinical crown-reserve crown remnant (in aradicular hypsodont teeth) or clinical crown-reserve crown and root remnant (in radicular hypsodont teeth)

  • Enamel infraction (EI): An incomplete fracture (crack) of the enamel without loss of tooth substance

  • Enamel fracture (EF): A fracture with loss of crown substance confined to the enamel

  • Uncomplicated crown fracture (UCF): A fracture of the crown that does not expose the pulp

  • Complicated crown fracture (CCF): A fracture of the crown1 that exposes the pulp

  • Uncomplicated crown-root fracture (UCRF): A fracture of the crown and root that does not expose the pulp

  • Complicated crown-root fracture (CCRF): A fracture of the crown and root that exposes the pulp

  • Root fracture (RF): A fracture involving the root

 

Endodontic Terminology

  • Endodontics is a specialty in dentistry and oral surgery that is concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the pulp-dentin complex and their impact on associated tissues.

  • Apexogenesis: Physiological formation of the apex of a vital tooth

  • Pulp (PU): Soft tissue in the pulp cavity

  • Odontoblasts: Cells of mesenchymal origin that line the outer surface of the pulp and whose biological function is formation of dentin (dentinogenesis)

  • Predentin: Unmineralized dentin matrix produced by odontoblasts

  • Dentin: Mineralized tissue surrounding the pulp and containing dentinal tubules which radiate outward from the pulp to the periphery

  • Primary dentin: Dentin produced until root formation is completed (e.g., dogs, cats) or the tooth comes into occlusion (e.g., horses)

  • Secondary dentin: Dentin produced after root formation is completed

  • Tertiary dentin: Dentin produced as a result of a local insult; can be reactionary (produced by existing odontoblasts) or reparative (produced by odontoblast-like cells that differentiated from pulpal stem cells as a result of an insult)

  • Sclerotic dentin: Transparent dentin characterized by mineralization of the dentinal tubules as a result of an insult or normal aging

  • Periapical (PA): Pertaining to tissues around the apex of a tooth, including the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone

  • Fracture (FX): Breaking of a bone or tooth

  • Vital tooth (T/V): Tooth with vital pulp

  • Nonvital tooth (T/NV): Tooth with nonvital pulp or from which the pulp has been removed

  • Pulp stones (PU/S): Intrapulpal mineralized structures

  • Mineralization of the pulp (PU/M): Pulpal mineralization resulting in regional narrowing or complete disappearance of the pulp cavity

  • Hypercementosis (HC): Excessive deposition of cementum around the root or reserve crown of a tooth

  • Near pulp exposure (T/NE): Thin layer of dentin separating the pulp from the outer tooth surface

  • Pulp exposure (T/PE): Tooth with an opening through the wall of the pulp cavity uncovering the pulp

  • Tooth luxation (T/LUX): Clinically or radiographically evident displacement of the tooth within its alveolus

  • Tooth avulsion (T/A): Complete extrusive luxation with the tooth out of its alveolus

  • Periapical pathology (PA/P): Pertaining to disease around the apex of a tooth

  • Periapical cyst (PA/C): Odontogenic cyst formed around the apex of a tooth after stimulation and proliferation of epithelial rests in the periodontal ligament (also known as a radicular cyst)

  • Periapical granuloma (PA/G): Chronic apical periodontitis with accumulation of mononuclear inflammatory cells and an encircling aggregation of fibroblasts and collagen that on diagnostic imaging appears as diffuse or circumscribed radiolucent lesion

  • Periapical abscess (PA/A): Acute or chronic inflammation of the periapical tissues characterized by localized accumulation of suppuration

  • Osteosclerosis (OSS): Excessive bone mineralization around the apex of a vital tooth caused by low-grade pulp irritation (asymptomatic; not requiring endodontic therapy)

  • Condensing osteitis (COO): Excessive bone mineralization around the apex of a non-vital tooth caused by long-standing and low-toxic exudation from an infected pulp (requiring endodontic therapy)

  • Alveolar osteitis (AOS): Inflammation of the alveolar bone considered to be a complication after tooth extraction

  • Osteomyelitis (OST): Localized or wide-spread infection of the bone and bone marrow

  • Osteonecrosis (OSN): Localized or wide-spread necrosis of the bone and bone marrow

  • Phoenix abscess: Acute exacerbation of chronic apical periodontitis

  • Intraoral fistula (IOF): Pathological communication between tooth, bone or soft tissue and the oral cavity; use IOF/R for its repair

  • Orofacial fistula (OFF): Pathological communication between the oral cavity and face; use OFD/R for its repair

  • Indirect pulp capping (PCI): Procedure involving the placement of a medicated material over an area of near pulp exposure

  • Direct pulp capping (PCD): Procedure performed as part of vital pulp therapy and involving the placement of a medicated material over an area of pulp exposure

  • Vital pulp therapy (VPT): Procedure performed on a vital tooth with pulp exposure, involving partial pulpectomy, direct pulp capping and access/fracture site restoration

  • Apexification (APN): Procedure to promote apical closure of a non-vital tooth

  • Standard (orthograde) root canal therapy (RCT): Procedure that involves accessing, debriding (including total pulpectomy), shaping, disinfecting, and obturating the root canal and restoring the access and/or fracture sites

  • Surgical (retrograde) root canal therapy (RCT/S): Procedure that involves accessing the bone surface (through mucosa or skin), fenestration of the bone over the root apex, apicoectomy, and retrograde filling

  • Apicoectomy (AP/X): Removal of the apex of a tooth; also called root end resection

  • Retrograde filling: Restoration placed in the apical portion of the root canal after apicoectomy

  • Tooth repositioning (T/RP): Repositioning of a displaced tooth

  • Interdental splinting (IDS): Fixation using intraoral splints between teeth within a dental arch (for example for avulsed or luxated teeth that underwent reimplantation or repositioning); if performed for jaw fracture repair, use FX/R/IDS.

 

Tooth Resorption

  • Tooth resorption is classified based on severity (Stages 1-5) and radiographic appearance (Types 1-3). The AVDC classification of tooth resorption is based on the assumption that tooth resorption is a progressive condition.

  • Tooth resorption (TR): Resorption of dental hard tissue

  • Internal resorption (RR): Tooth resorption originating within the pulp cavity

  • Stages of Tooth Resorption

    • Stage 1 (TR 1): Mild dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel)

    • Stage 2 (TR 2): Moderate dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that does not extend to the pulp cavity)

    • Stage 3 (TR 3): Deep dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that extends to the pulp cavity); most of the tooth retains its integrity

    • Stage 4 (TR 4): Extensive dental hard tissue loss (cementum or cementum and enamel with loss of dentin that extends to the pulp cavity); most of the tooth has lost its integrity; TR4a: Crown and root are equally affected; TR4b: Crown is more severely affected than the root; TR4c: Root is more severely affected than the crown.

    • Stage 5 (TR 5): Remnants of dental hard tissue are visible only as irregular radiopacities, and gingival covering is complete.

  • Types of Resorption Based on Radiographic Appearance

    • Type 1 (T1): On a radiograph of a tooth with type 1 (T1) appearance, a focal or multifocal radiolucency is present in the tooth with otherwise normal radiopacity and normal periodontal ligament space.

    • Type 2 (T2): On a radiograph of a tooth with type 2 (T2) appearance, there is narrowing or disappearance of the periodontal ligament space in at least some areas and decreased radiopacity of part of the tooth.

    • Type 3 (T3): On a radiograph of a tooth with type 3 (T3) appearance, features of both type 1 and type 2 are present in the same tooth. A tooth with this appearance has areas of normal and narrow or lost periodontal ligament space, and there is focal or multifocal radiolucency in the tooth and decreased radiopacity in other areas of the tooth.

 

Operative Dentistry and Prosthodontic Terminology

  • Operative (or restorative) dentistry is a specialty in dentistry and oral surgery that is concerned with the art and science of the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of defects of teeth that do not require prosthodontic crowns for correction.

  • Prosthodontics (or dental prosthetics or prosthetic dentistry) is a speciality in dentistry and oral surgery that is concerned with the provision of suitable substitutes for the clinical crown of teeth or for one or more missing or lost teeth and their associated parts. Maxillofacial prosthetics is considered a subspecialty of prosthodontics, involving palatal obturators and maxillofacial prostheses to replace resected or lost tissues.

  • Odontoplasty (ODY): Surgical contouring of the tooth surface

  • Defect preparation (DP): Removal of dental hard tissue to establish in a tooth the biomechanically acceptable form necessary to receive and retain a defect restoration

  • Restoration (R): Anything that replaces lost tooth structure, teeth or oral tissues, including fillings, inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns, bridges, implants, dentures and obturators

  • Defect restoration: Filling made of amalgam (R/A), glass ionomer (R/I), composite (R/C) or compomer (R/CP) within a prepared defect

  • Bridge (BRI): Fixed partial denture used to replace a missing or lost tooth by joining permanently to adjacent teeth or implants

  • Crown preparation (CR/P): Removal of enamel or enamel and dentin to establish on a tooth the biomechanically acceptable form necessary to receive and retain a prosthodontic crown

  • Temporary crown (CR/T): Provisional, short-term cap made of resin to protect a prepared crown until cementation of a prosthodontic crown

  • Full crown: Prosthodontic crown made of metal (CR/M), resin (CR/R), ceramic (CR/C) or porcelain fused to metal (CR/PFM) that covers the tip and all sides of a prepared crown

  • Partial crown: Prosthodontic crown (e.g., three-quarter crown) made of metal (CR/M/P), resin (CR/R/P), ceramic (CR/C/P) or porcelain fused to metal (CR/PFM/P) that covers part of a prepared crown

  • Implant (IMP): Titanium rod-shaped endosseous device to support intraoral prosthetics that resemble a tooth or group of teeth to replace one or more missing or lost teeth

  • Crown reduction (CR/XP): Partial removal of tooth substance to reduce the height or an abnormal extension of the clinical crown

  • Crown amputation (CR/A): Total removal of clinical crown substance

  • Post and core (PCB): Placing a post into the root canal of a tooth that had root canal therapy and build-up of a core made of filling material around the portion of post that extends out from the pulp cavity

 

Jaws and Temporomandibular Joints

  • Incisive bones: In domestic animals, the correct name for the paired bones that carry the maxillary incisors, located rostral to the maxillary bones, is the incisive bones, not the premaxilla.

  • Maxilla/maxillary (MX): Referring to the upper jaw; all mammals have two maxillas (or maxillae) and two mandibles. The adjective “maxillary” is often used in a wider sense, e.g., “maxillary fractures”, to include other facial bones, in addition to the maxillary bone proper.

  • Mandible/mandibular (M/N): Referring to the lower jaw; all animals have two mandibles, not one; removing one entire mandible is a total mandibulectomy not a hemimandibulectomy.

    • Body of the mandible: The part that carries the teeth; often incorrectly referred to as horizontal ramus

    • Incisive part: The part that carries the incisors

    • Molar part: The part that carries the premolars and molars; premolar-molar part would probably have been more accurate

    • Alveolar margin: Often incorrectly referred to as alveolar crest

    • Ventral margin: Free ventral border

    • Mandibular canal: Contains a neurovascular bundle; often incorrectly referred to as the medullary cavity of the mandible

    • Mental foramen (plural, foramina): Rostral, middle or caudal mental foramina in the dog and cat

    • Ramus of the mandible: The part that carries the 3 processes; often incorrectly referred to as the vertical ramus

    • Angular process: Caudoventral process (in carnivora)

    • Coronoid process: Process for the attachment of the temporal muscle

    • Condylar process: Consisting of mandibular head and mandibular neck; often incorrectly referred to as condyloid process

    • Mandibular head: Articular head of the condylar process

    • Mandibular neck: Neck of the condylar process

    • Mandibular notch: The notch on the caudal aspect, between the coronoid and condylar processes; not to be confused with the facial vascular notch

    • Mandibular angle: Angle between the body and ramus of the mandible

    • Facial vascular notch: Shallow indentation on the ventral apsect of the mandible, rostral to the angular process (absent in carnivores)

    • Mandibular foramen: The entrance to the mandibular canal

    • Intermandibular joint (mandibular symphysis): Median connection of the bodies of the right and left mandibles (in adult Sus and Equus replaced by a synostosis), consisting of intermandibular synchondrosis and intermandibular suture

    • Intermandibular synchondrosis: The smaller part of the intermandibular joint formed by cartilage

    • Intermandibular suture: The larger part of the intermandibular joint formed by connective tissue

  • Temporomandibular joint (TMJ): The area where the condylar process of the mandible articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone

    • Articular disk: A flat structure composed of fibrocartilagenous tissue and positioned between the articular surfaces of the condylar process of the mandible and mandibular fossa of the temporal bone, separating the joint capsule in dorsal and ventral compartments; often incorrectly referred to as meniscus.

    • Mandibular fossa: Concave depression in the temporal bone that articulates with the mandibular head

    • Retroarticular process: A projection of the temporal bone that protrudes ventrally from the caudal end of the zygomatic arch and carries part of the mandibular fossa

  • Alveolar jugum (plural, juga): The palpable convexity of the buccal alveolar bone overlying a large tooth root.

  • Dental arch: Referring to the curving structure formed by the teeth in their normal position; upper dental arch formed by the maxillary teeth, lower dental arch formed by the mandibular teeth

  • Jaw quadrant: Referring to the left or right upper or lower jaw

  • Interarch: Referring to between the upper and lower dental arches

  • Interquadrant: Referring to between the left and right upper or lower jaw quadrants

  • Mandible/mandibular (MN): Referring to the lower jaw

  • Maxilla/maxillary (MX): Referring to the upper jaw

  • Mandibular symphysis (SYM): Joint between the left and right mandibles (intermandibular joint)

  • Zygomatic arch (ZYG): Consisting of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone; also called zygoma

  • Maxillary fracture (MX/FX): Fracture of the upper jaw (maxilla and other facial bones)

  • Mandibular fracture (MN/FX): Fracture of the lower jaw (mandible)

  • Sympyseal separation (SYM/S): Separation of the two mandibles in the mandibular symphysis; this includes parasymphyseal fractures where the fracture line is partly or completely paramedian to the symphysis; repair of symphyseal separation with wire (circumferential or interquadrant) and/or intraoral resin splinting is abbreviated with SYM/R

  • Repair of a jaw fracture (FX/R): Used when any of the other abbreviations do not describe the jaw fracture repair technique applied

  • Maxillomandibular fixation (FX/R/MMF): Fixation that brings together the upper and lower jaws; use MMF for devices other than muzzles and splints

  • Muzzling (FX/R/MZ): Maxillomandibular fixation using a prefabricated or custom-made muzzle; also used in horses to prevent eating (e.g., post sedation)

  • Interarch splinting (FX/R/IAS): Maxillomandibular fixation using intraoral splints (commonly resin that can be reinforced with wire)

  • Interquadrant splinting (FX/R/IQS): Fixation using intraoral splints (commonly resin that can be reinforced with wire) between the left and right upper or lower jaw quadrants

  • Interdental splinting (FX/R/IDS): Fixation using intraoral splints (commonly resin that can be reinforced with wire) between teeth within a dental arch

  • Intraosseous wiring (FX/R/WIR/OS): Fixation using intraosseous wire

  • Bone plating (FX/R/PL): Fixation using bone plates

  • External skeletal fixation (FX/R/EXF): Fixation using pins or wires and extraoral splinting

  • Wire cerclage (FX/R/WIR/C): Fixation using circumferential wiring

  • Decreased mouth opening (DMO): Difficulty opening the mouth by the animal or decreased range of mouth opening upon oral examination

  • Temporomandibular joint fracture (TMJ/FX): Fracture of one or more bony structures forming the temporomandibular joint; surgical repair is abbreviated with TMJ/FX/R

  • Temporomandibular joint ankylosis (TMJ/A): Fusion between the bones forming the temporomandibular joint or those in close proximity, resulting in progressive inability to open the mouth; removal of bone in ankylotic areas is abbreviated with TMJ/A/R

  • Temporomandibular joint luxation (TMJ/LUX): Displacement of the condylar process of the mandible; manual or surgical reduction of temporomandibular joint luxation is abbreviated with TMJ/LUX/R

  • Temporomandibular joint dysplasia (TMJ/D): Dysplasia of soft or hard tissues forming the temporomandibular joint

  • Open-mouth jaw locking (OMJL): Inability to close the mouth due to locking of the coronoid process of the mandible ventrolateral to the ipsilateral zygomatic arch; manual reduction of open-mouth jaw locking is abbreviated with OMJL/R

  • Zygomectomy (ZYG/X): Resection (usually partial) of the zygomatic arch

  • Coronoidectomy (COR/X): Resection (usually partial) of the coronoid process of the mandible

  • Condylectomy (CON/X): Resection of the condylar process of the mandible

 

Definitions of Stage, Grade and Index

  • Stage: The assessment of the extent of pathological lesions in the course of a disease that is likely to be progressive (e.g. stages of periodontal disease, staging of oral tumors).

  • Grade: The quantitative assessment of the degree of severity of a disease or abnormal condition at the time of diagnosis, irrespective of whether the disease is progressive (e.g. a grade 2 mast cell tumor based on mitotic figures).

  • Index: A quantitative expression of predefined diagnostic criteria whereby the presence and/or severity of pathological conditions are recorded by assessing a numerical value (e.g. gingival index, plaque index).

 

Stages of Periodontal Disease, Furcation and Tooth Mobility Indices

The degree of severity of periodontal disease (PD) relates to a single tooth; a patient may have teeth that have different stages of periodontal disease.

  • Normal (PD0): Clinically normal; gingival inflammation or periodontitis is not clinically evident.

  • Stage 1 (PD1): Gingivitis only without attachment loss; the height and architecture of the alveolar margin are normal.

  • Stage 2 (PD2): Early periodontitis; less than 25% of attachment loss or, at most, there is a stage 1 furcation involvement in multirooted teeth. There are early radiologic signs of periodontitis. The loss of periodontal attachment is less than 25% as measured either by probing of the clinical attachment level, or radiographic determination of the distance of the alveolar margin from the cementoenamel junction relative to the length of the root.

  • Stage 3 (PD3): Moderate periodontitis – 25-50% of attachment loss as measured either by probing of the clinical attachment level, radiographic determination of the distance of the alveolar margin from the cementoenamel junction relative to the length of the root, or there is a stage 2 furcation involvement in multirooted teeth.

  • Stage 4 (PD4): Advanced periodontitis; more than 50% of attachment loss as measured either by probing of the clinical attachment level, or radiographic determination of the distance of the alveolar margin from the cementoenamel junction relative to the length of the root, or there is a stage 3 furcation involvement in multirooted teeth.

Furcation Index

  • Stage 1 (F1): Furcation 1 involvement exists when a periodontal probe extends less than half way under the crown in any direction of a multirooted tooth with attachment loss.

  • Stage 2 (F2): Furcation 2 involvement exists when a periodontal probe extends greater than half way under the crown of a multirooted tooth with attachment loss but not through and through.

  • Stage 3 (F3): Furcation exposure exists when a periodontal probe extends under the crown of a multirooted tooth, through and through from one side of the furcation out the other.

Tooth Mobility Index

  • Stage 0 (M0): Physiologic mobility up to 0.2 mm.

  • Stage 1 (M1): The mobility is increased in any direction other than axial over a distance of more than 0.2 mm and up to 0.5 mm.

  • Stage 2 (M2): The mobility is increased in any direction other than axial over a distance of more than 0.5 mm and up to 1.0 mm.

  • Stage 3 (M3): The mobility is increased in any direction than axial over a distance exceeding 1.0 mm or any axial movement.

 

Gingival and Periodontal Pathology and Treatment

  • Gingivitis: Inflammation of gingiva

  • Periodontitis: Inflammation of non-gingival periodontal tissues (i.e., the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone)

  • Gingival recession (GR): Root surface exposure caused by apical migration of the gingival margin or loss of gingiva.

  • Gingival enlargement (GE): Clinical term, referring to overgrowth or thickening of gingiva in the absence of a histological diagnosis

  • Gingival hyperplasia (GH): Histological term, referring to an abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in a normal arrangement and resulting clinically in gingival enlargement

  • Abnormal tooth extrusion (ATE): Increase in clinical crown length not related to gingival recession or lack of tooth wear

  • Alveolar bone expansion (ABE): Thickening of alveolar bone at labial and buccal aspects of teeth

  • Professional oral care includes mechanical procedures performed in the oral cavity.

  • Professional dental cleaning (PRO) refers to scaling (supragingival and subgingival plaque and calculus removal) and polishing of the teeth with power/hand instrumentation performed by a trained veterinary health care provider under general anesthesia. See also AVDC Position Statements on Dental Health Care Providers and on Non-Professional Dental Scaling.

  • Periodontal therapy refers to treatment of diseased periodontal tissues that includes professional dental cleaning as defined above and one or more of the following: root planing, gingival curettage, periodontal flaps, regenerative surgery, gingivectomy/gingivoplasty, and local administration of antiseptics/antibiotics.

  • Home oral hygiene refers to measures taken by pet owners that are aimed at controlling or preventing plaque and calculus accumulation.

  • Gingival curettage (GC): Removal of damaged or diseased tissue from the soft tissue lining of a periodontal pocket

  • Root planing (RP): Removal of dental deposits from and smoothing of the root surface of a tooth; it is closed (RP/C) when performed without a flap or open (RP/O) when performed after creation of a flap.

  • Gingivectomy (GV): Removal of some or all gingiva surrounding a tooth

  • Gingivoplasty (GV): A form of gingivectomy performed to restore physiological contours of the gingiva

  • Guided tissue regeneration (GTR): Regeneration of tissue directed by the physical presence and/or chemical activities of a biomaterial; often involves placement of barriers to exclude one or more cell types during healing of tissue

  • Crown lengthening (CR/L): Increasing clinical crown height by means of gingivectomy/gingivoplasty, apically positioned flaps, post and core build-up, or orthodontic movement

  • Frenuloplasty (frenulotomy, frenulectomy) (FRE): Reconstructive surgery or excision of a frenulum

  • Hemisection (HS): Splitting of a tooth into two separate portions

  • Trisection (TS): Splitting of a tooth into three separate portions

  • Partial tooth resection (T/XP): Removal of a crown-root segment with endodontic treatment of the remainder of the tooth

  • Root resection/amputation (RO/X): Removal of a root with maintenance of the entire crown and endodontic treatment of the remainder of the tooth

 

Tooth Extraction-Related Terminology

  • Closed extraction (X or XS): Extraction of teeth without flap creation; X is used when closed extraction is performed without tooth sectioning; XS is used when closed extraction is performed with tooth sectioning or removal of interproximal crown tissue.

  • Open extraction (XSS): Extraction of teeth after flap creation and alveolectomy

  • Alveolectomy (ALV): Removal of some or all of the alveolar bone

  • Alveoloplasty (ALV): A form of alveolectomy performed to restore physiological contours or achieve smooth contours of the alveolar bone

 

Flap Surgery

  • Flap (F): A sheet of tissue partially or totally detached to gain access to structures underneath or to be used in repairing defects; can be classified based on the location of the donor site (local or distant), attachment to donor site (pedicle, island or free), tissue to be transferred (e.g., mucosal, mucoperiosteal, cutaneous, myocutaneous), tissue thickness (partial-thickness or full-thickness), blood supply (random pattern or axial pattern), and direction and orientation of transfer (envelope, advancement, rotation, transposition, and hinged).

  • Local flap: Harvested from an adjacent site

  • Distant flap: Harvested from a remote site

  • Pedicle flap: Attached by tissue through which it receives its blood supply

  • Island flap (F/IS): Attached by a pedicle made up of only the nutrient vessels.

  • Free flap: Completely detached from the body; it has also been suggested that a free flap be termed a graft

  • Mucosal flap: Containing mucosa

  • Mucoperiosteal flap: Containing mucosa and underlying periosteum

  • Cutaneous (or skin) flap: Containing epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue

  • Myocutaneous flap: Containing skin and muscle

  • Gingival flap: Containing gingiva

  • Alveolar mucosa flap: Containing alveolar mucosa

  • Periodontal flap: Containing gingiva and alveolar mucosa

  • Labial flap: Containing lip mucosa

  • Buccal flap: Containing cheek mucosa

  • Sublingual flap: Containing sublingual mucosa

  • Palatal flap: Containing palatal mucosa

  • Pharyngeal flap: Containing pharyngeal mucosa

  • Partial-thickness (or split-thickness) flap: Consisting of a portion of the original tissue thickness

  • Full-thickness flap: Having the original tissue thickness

  • Random pattern flap: Randomly supplied by nonspecific arteries

  • Axial pattern flap: Supplied by a specific artery

  • Envelope flap (F/EN): Retracted away from a horizontal incision; there is no vertical incision

  • Advancement (or sliding) flap (F/AD): Carried to its new position by a sliding technique in a direction away from its base

  • Rotation flap (F/RO): A pedicle flap that is rotated into a defect on a fulcrum point

  • Transposition flap (F/TR): Flap that combines the features of an advancement flap and a rotation flap

  • Hinged flap (F/HI): Folded on its pedicle as though the pedicle was a hinge; also called a turnover or overlapping flap

  • Apically positioned flap (F/AP): Moved apical to its original location

  • Coronally positioned flap (F/CO): Moved coronal to its original location

  • Mesiodistally or distomesially positioned flap: Moved distal or mesial to its original location along the dental arch; also called a laterally positioned flap (F/LA)

 

​Grafts and Related Terminology

  • Transplantation: Act or process of transferring something from one part or individual to another

  • Transplant: Something that is transferred from one part or individual to another

  • Graft (GF): Non-living material or living tissue used for implantation or transplantation to replace a diseased part or compensate for a defect

  • Gingival graft (GF/G): Gingiva or gingiva-like tissue (e.g., from the hard palate) used to replace gingiva in a gingival defect

  • Connective tissue graft (GF/CT): Connective tissue from a keratinized mucosa (e.g., from the hard palate) placed in a gingival defect and which is partially or completely covered with gingiva and/or alveolar mucosa in the recipient bed

  • Mucosal graft (GF/M): Mucosa used to take place of a removed piece of mucosa or cover a mucosal defect

  • Bone graft (GF/B): A surgical procedure by which bone or a bone substitute is used to take place of a removed piece of bone or bony defect

  • Cartilage graft (GF/C): Cartilage used to to take the place of a removed piece of bone or fill a bony defect

  • Skin graft (GF/S): Skin used to take place of a removed piece of skin/mucosa or skin/mucosa defect

  • Venous graft (GF/V): A vein used to take place of a removed segment of artery/vein or arterial/venous defect

  • Nerve graft (GF/N): A nerve used to take place of a removed segment of nerve or nerve defect

  • Fat graft (GF/F): Adipose tissue used to provide volume to a defect or to prevent ingrowth of other tissues into the defect

  • Autograft: Tissue transferred from one area to another area of the animal’s own body

  • Isograft: Tissue transferred between genetically identical animals

  • Allograft: Tissue transferred between genetically dissimilar animals of the same species

  • Xenograft: Tissue transferred between animals of different species

  • Particulate graft: A graft containing equally or variably-sized particles

  • Full-thickness graft: A graft consisting of the full thickness of a tissue

  • Partial-thickness (split-thickness) graft: A graft consisting of a portion of the thickness of a tissue

  • Mesh graft: A type of partial-thickness graft in which multiple small incisions have been made to increase stretching and flexibility of the graft

  • Composite graft: A graft composed of at least two different tissues, e.g., skin-muscle-and-bone graft

  • Implant (IMP): Something inserted into or applied onto living tissue

  • Implantation: The act or process of inserting something into or applying something onto living tissue

 

Oral Inflammation

  • Gingivitis: Inflammation of gingiva

  • Periodontitis: Inflammation of non-gingival periodontal tissues (i.e. the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone)

  • Alveolar mucositis: Inflammation of alveolar mucosa (i.e., mucosa overlying the alveolar process and extending from the mucogingival junction without obvious demarcation to the vestibular sulcus and to the floor of the mouth)

  • Sublingual mucositis: Inflammation of mucosa on the floor of the mouth

  • Labial/buccal mucositis: Inflammation of lip/cheek mucosa

  • Caudal mucositis: Inflammation of mucosa of the caudal oral cavity, bordered medially by the palatoglossal folds and fauces, dorsally by the hard and soft palate, and rostrally by alveolar and buccal mucosa

  • Stomatitis (ST): Inflammation of the mucous lining of any of the structures in the mouth; in clinical use the term should be reserved to describe wide-spread oral inflammation (beyond gingivitis and periodontitis) that may also extend into submucosal tissues (e.g., marked caudal mucositis extending into submucosal tissues may be termed caudal stomatitis

  • (ST/CS). Note: The fauces are defined as the lateral walls of the oropharynx that are located medial to the palatoglossal folds. The areas lateral to the palatoglossal fold, commonly involved in feline stomatitis, are not the fauces.

  • Contact mucositis and contact mucosal ulceration (CU): Lesions in susceptible individuals that are secondary to mucosal contact with a tooth surface bearing the responsible irritant, allergen, or antigen. They have also been called “contact ulcers” and “kissing ulcers”.

  • Palatitis: inflammation of mucosa covering the hard and/or soft palate

  • Glossitis: inflammation of mucosa of the dorsal and/or ventral tongue surface

  • Osteomyelitis (OST): Inflammation of the bone and bone marrow

  • Cheilitis: Inflammation of the lip (including the mucocutaneous junction area and skin of the lip)

  • Tonsilitis (TON/IN): Inflammation of the palatine tonsil

  • Pharyngitis (PHA/IN): inflammation of the pharynx

 

Autoimmune Conditions Affecting the Mouth

  • Pemphigus vulgaris (PV): Autoimmune disease characterized histologically by intraepithelial blister formation (after breakdown or loss of intercellular adhesion), biochemically by evidence of circulating autoantibodies against components of the epithelial desmosome-tonofilament complexes, and clinically by the presence of vesiculobullous and/or ulcerative oral and mucocutaneous lesions

  • Bullous pemphigoid (BUP): Autoimmune disease characterized histologically by subepithelial clefting (separation at the epithelium-connective tissue interface), biochemically by evidence of circulating autoantibodies against components of the basement membrane, and clinically by the presence of erythematous, erosive, vesiculobullous and/or ulcerative oral lesions

  • Lupus erythematosis (LE): Autoimmune disease characterized histologically by basal cell destruction, hyperkeratosis, epithelial atrophy, subepithelial and perivascular lymphocytic infiltration and vascular dilation with submucosal edema, biochemically by the evidence of circulating autoantibodies against various cellular antigens in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, and clinically by the presence of acute lesions (systemic LE) to skin, mucosa and multiple organs or chronic lesions (discoid LE) mostly confined to the skin of the face and mucosa of the oral cavity

  • Masticatory muscle myositis (MMM): Autoimmune disease affecting the temporal, masseter, and medial and lateral pterygoid muscles of the dog. The term masticatory myositis is an acceptable alternative.

 

Oral Tumors

  • The term “epulis” (plural = “epulides”) is a general term referring to a gingival mass lesion of any type. Examples of epulides include: focal fibrous hyperplasia, peripheral odotogenic fibroma, acanthomatous ameloblastoma, non-odontogenic tumors, pyogenic granulomas and reactive exostosis.

  • Acanthomatous ameloblastoma (OM/AA): A typically benign, but aggressive, histological variant of a group of epithelial odontogenic tumors known collectively as ameloblastomas which have a basic structure resembling the enamel organ (suggesting derivation from ameloblasts); the acanthomatous histological designation refers to the central cells within nests of odontogenic epithelium that are squamous and may be keratinized rather than stellate

  • Adenoma (OM/AD): Benign epithelial tumor in which the cells form recognizable glandular structures or in which the cells are derived from glandular epithelium

  • Adenocarcinoma (OM/ADC): An invasive, malignant epithelial neoplasm derived from glandular tissue of either the oral cavity, nasal cavity or salivary tissue (major or accessory)

  • Amyloid producing odontogenic tumor (OM/APO): A benign epithelial odontogenic tumor characterized by the presence of odontogenic epithelium and extra-cellular amyloid

  • Anaplastic neoplasm (OM/APN): A malignant neoplasm whose cells are generally undifferentiated and pleomorphic (displaying variability in size, shape and pattern of cells and/or their nuclei)

  • Cementoma (OM/CE): A benign odontogenic neoplasm of mesenchymal origin, consisting of cementum-like tissue deposited by cells resembling cementoblasts

  • Feline inductive odontogenic tumor (OM/FIO): A benign tumor unique to adolescent and young adult cats that originates multifocally within the supporting connective tissue as characteristic, spherical condensations of fibroblastic connective tissue associated with islands of odontogenic epithelium; has also been incorrectly called inductive fibroameloblastoma

  • Fibrosarcoma (OM/FS): An invasive, malignant mesenchymal neoplasm of fibroblasts; a distinct histologically low-grade, biologically high-grade variant is often found in the oral cavity

  • Giant cell granuloma (OM/GCG): A benign, tumor-like growth consisting of multi-nucleated giant cells within a background stroma on the gingiva (peripheral giant cell granuloma) or within bone (central giant cell granuloma); also called giant cell epulis

  • Granular cell tumor (OM/GCT): A benign tumor of the skin or mucosa with uncertain histogenesis, most commonly occurring on the tongue; also called myoblastoma

  • Hemangiosarcoma (OM/HS): A malignant neoplasm of vascular endothelial origin characterized by extensive metastasis; it has been reported in the gingiva, tongue and hard palate

  • Lipoma (OM/LI): A benign mesenchymal neoplasm of lipocytes

  • Lymphosarcoma (OM/LS): A malignant neoplasm defined by a proliferation of lymphocytes within solid organs such as the lymph nodes, tonsils, bone marrow, liver and spleen; the disease also may occur in the eye, skin, nasal cavity, oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract; also known as lymphoma

  • Malignant melanoma (OM/MM): An invasive, malignant neoplasm of melanocytes or melanocyte precursors that may or may not be pigmented (amelanotic); also called melanosarcoma

  • Mast cell tumor (OM/MCT): A local aggregation of mast cells forming a nodular tumor, having the potential to become malignant; also called mastocytoma

  • Multilobular tumor of bone (OM/MTB): A potentially malignant and locally invasive neoplasm of bone that more commonly affects the mandible, hard palate and flat bones of the cranium with a multilobular histological pattern of bony or cartilaginous matrix surrounded by a thin layer of spindle cells that gives it a near pathognomonic radiographic “popcorn ball” appearance; also called multilobular osteochondrosarcoma, multilobular osteoma, multilobular chondroma, chondroma rodens, and multilobular osteosarcoma

  • Osteoma (OM/OO): A benign neoplasm of bone consisting of mature, compact, or cancellous bone

  • Osteosarcoma (OM/OS): A locally aggressive malignant mesenchymal neoplasm of primitive bone cells that have the ability to produce osteoid or immature bone

  • Papilloma (OM/PAP): An exophytic, pedunculated, cauliflower-like benign neoplasm of epithelium; canine papillomatosis is thought to be due to infection with canine papillomavirus in typically young dogs; severe papillomatosis may be recognized in older dogs that are immunocompromised

  • Peripheral nerve sheath tumor (OM/PNT): A group of neural tumors arising from Schwann cells or perineural fibroblasts (or a combination of both cell types) of the cranial nerves, spinal nerve roots or peripheral nerves; they may be classified as histologically benign or malignant

  • Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (OM/POF): A benign mesenchymal odontogenic tumor associated with the gingiva and believed to originate from the periodontal ligament; characterized by varying amounts of inactive-looking odontogenic epithelium embedded in a mature, fibrous stroma, which may undergo osseous metaplasia; historically been referred to as fibromatous epulis or – when bone or tooth-like hard tissue present within the lesion – ossifying epulis

  • Plasma cell tumor (OM/PCT): A proliferation of plasma cells, commonly occurring on the gingiva or dorsum of the tongue; also called plasmacytoma

  • Rhabdomyosarcoma (OM/RBM): A malignant neoplasm of skeletal muscle or embryonic mesenchymal cells

  • Squamous cell carcinoma (OM/SCC): An invasive, malignant epithelial neoplasm of the oral epithelium with varying degrees of squamous differentiation

  • Undifferentiated neoplasm (OM/UDN): A malignant neoplasm whose cells are generally immature and lack distinctive features of a particular tissue type

 

Diagnostic and Treatment Procedures for Oral Tumors

  • Biopsy (B): Removal of tissue from a living body for diagnostic purposes. The term has also been used to describe the tissue being submitted for evaluation.

  • Guided biopsy: Using computed tomography or ultrasonography to guide an instrument to the selected area for tissue removal

  • Surface biopsy (B/S): Removal of tissue brushed, scraped or obtained by an impression smear from the intact or cut surface of a tissue in question

  • Needle aspiration (B/NA): Removal of tissue by application of suction through a hollow needle attached to a syringe

  • Needle biopsy (B/NB): Removal of tissue by puncture with a hollow needle

  • Core needle biopsy (B/CN): Removal of tissue with a large hollow needle that extracts a core of tissue

  • Bite biopsy (B/B): Removal of tissue by closing the opposing ends of an instrument

  • Punch biopsy (B/P): Removal of tissue by a punch-type instrument

  • Incisional biopsy (B/I): Removal of a selected portion of tissue by means of surgical cutting

  • Excisional biopsy (B/E): Removal of the entire tissue in question by means of surgical cutting Guided biopsy – Using computed tomography or ultrasonography to guide an instrument to the selected area for tissue removal

  • Radiotherapy (RTH): Use of ionizing radiation to control or kill tumor cells; also called radiation therapy

  • Chemotherapy (CTH): Use of cytotoxic anti-neoplastic drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) to control or kill tumor cells

  • Immunotherapy (ITH): Use of the immune system to control or kill tumor cells

  • Radiography (RAD): Two-dimensional imaging of dental, periodontal, oral and maxillofacial structures using an X-ray machine and radiographic films, sensor pads or phosphor plates

  • Computed tomography (CT): A method of medical imaging that uses computer-processed X-rays to produce tomographic images or ‘slices’ of specific areas of the body; digital geometry processing is used to generate three-dimensional images of an object of interest from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation

  • Cone-beam CT (CT/CB): Variation of traditional CT that rotates around the patient, capturing data using a cone-shaped X-ray beam

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): A method of medical imaging that uses the property of nuclear magnetic resonance to image nuclei of atoms inside the body

  • Ultrasonography (US): A method of medical imaging of deep structures of the body by recording the echoes of pulses of ultrasonic waves directed into the tissues and reflected by tissue planes where there is a change in density

  • Scintigraphy (SCI): A method of medical imaging that uses radioisotopes taken internally (e.g., by mouth, injection, inhalation), and the emitted radiation is captured by external detectors (gamma cameras) to form two-dimensional images

  • Surgery (S): Branch of medicine that treats diseases, injuries and deformities by manual or operative methods

  • Buccotomy (BUC): Incision through the cheek (for example to gain access to an intraoral procedure)

  • Cheiloplasty/commissuroplasty (CPL): Reconstructive surgery of the lip/lip commissure

  • Commissurotomy (COM): Incision through the lip commissure (for example to gain access to an intraoral procedure)

  • Partial mandibulectomy (S/M): Surgical removal (en block) of part of the mandible and surrounding soft tissues

  • Dorsal marginal mandibulectomy (S/MD): A form of partial mandibulectomy in which the ventral border of the mandible is maintained; also called marginal mandibulectomy or mandibular rim excision

  • Segmental mandibulectomy (S/MS): A form of partial mandibulectomy in which a full dorsoventral segment of the mandible is removed

  • Bilateral partial mandibulectomy (S/MB): Surgical removal of parts of the left and right mandibles and surrounding soft tissues

  • Total mandibulectomy (S/MT): Surgical removal of one mandible and surrounding soft tissues

  • Partial maxillectomy (S/X): Surgical removal (en block) of part of the maxilla and/or other facial bones and surrounding soft tissues

  • Bilateral partial maxillectomy (S/XB): Surgical removal of parts of the left and right maxillae and/or other facial bones and surrounding soft tissues

  • Partial palatectomy (S/P): Partial resection of the palate

 

​​Other Oral Pathology-Related Terms

  • Culture/sensitivity (CS): Bacteria cultured in medium and analyzed for sensitivity to antibiotics

  • Chewing lesion (CL): Mucosal lesion resulting from self-induced bite trauma on the cheek (CL/B), lip (CL/L), palate (CL/P) or tongue/sublingual region (CL/T)

  • Eosinophilic granuloma (EOG): Referring to conditions affecting the lip/labial mucosa (EOG/L), hard/soft palate (EOG/P), tongue/sublingual mucosa (EOG/T), and skin that are characterized histopathologically by the presence of an eosinophilic infiltrate

  • Pyogenic granuloma (PYO): Inflammatory proliferation at the vestibular mucogingival tissues of the mandibular first molar tooth (in the cat probably due to malocclusion and secondary traumatic contact of these tissues by the ipsilateral maxillary fourth premolar tooth)

  • Erythema multiforme (EM): Typically drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction characterized by erythematous, vesiculobullous and/or ulcerative oral and skin lesions

  • Calcinosis circumsctripta (CC): Circumscribed areas of mineralization characterized by deposition of calcium salts (e.g., in the tip of the tongue)

  • Retrobulbar abscess (RBA): Abscess behind the globe of the eye

  • Retropharyngeal abscess (RPA): Abscess behind the pharynx

  • Craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO): Disease characterized by cyclical resorption of normal bone and excessive replacement by immature bone along mandibular, temporal and other bone surfaces in immature and adolescent dogs

  • Calvarial hyperostosis (CHO): Disease characterized by irregular, progressive proliferation and thickening of the cortex of the bones forming the calvarium in adolescent dogs

  • Fibrous osteodystrophy (FOD): Disease characterized by the formation of hyperostotic bone lesions, in which deposition of unmineralized osteoid by hyperplastic osteoblasts and production of fibrous connective tissue exceed the rate of bone resorption; usually due to primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism; resulting in softened, pliable and distorted bones of the face (“rubber jaw”, “bighead” or “bran disease”)

  • Periostitis ossificans (PEO): Periosteal new bone formation in immature dogs, manifesting clinically as (usually) unilateral swelling of the mid to caudal body of the mandible and radiographically as two-layered (double) ventral mandibular cortex

  • Laceration (LAC): A tear or cut in the gingiva/alveolar mucosa (LAC/G), tongue/sublingual mucosa (LAC/T), lip skin/labial mucosa (LAC/L), cheek skin/buccal mucosa (LAC/B), palatal mucosa (LAC/P), or palatine tonsil/oropharyngeal mucosa (LAC/O); debridement and suturing of such lacerations is abbreviated as LAC/R

  • Foreign body (FB): An object originating outside the body; removal of the foreign body is abbreviated with FB/R

  • Burn (TMA/BRN): Injury to skin, mucosa or other body parts due to fire, heat, radiation, electricity, or a caustic agent

  • Ballistic trauma (TMA/B): Physical trauma sustained from a projectile that was launched through space, most commonly by a weapon such as a gun or a bow

  • Electric injury (TMA/E): Physical trauma to skin, mucosa or other tissues when coming into direct contact with an electrical current

  • Lip avulsion (LIP/A): Traumatic separation of the lip from the underlying connective tissue; use LIP/A/R for lip avulsion repair

 

Tongue, Lips, Cheeks, Palate, Pharynx, Nose and Eyes

  • Congenital: Of or relating to a disease, condition or characteristic that is present at birth and may be inherited or result from an insult during pregnancy

  • Acquired: Of or relating to a disease, condition or characteristic that develops after birth and is not inherited

  • Inherited: Of or relating to a disease, condition or characteristic that results from the genetic make­up of the individual animal and may be present at birth or develop later in life

  • Tongue (LIN): Fleshy muscular organ in the mouth used for tasting, licking, swallowing, articulating and thermoregulation; use LIN/X for tongue resection

  • Lip/cheek (LIP): Fleshy parts that form the upper and lower edges of the opening of the mouth/side of the face below the eye; use LIP/X for lip/cheek resection

  • Incisive papilla: Elevation of mucosa at the rostral end of the median line of junction of the halves of the palate, concealing the orifices of the incisive ducts

  • Hard palate: The part of the palate supported by bone. The midline of the hard palate is not a symphysis but is formed by the interincisive suture, the median palatine suture of the palatine processes of the maxillary bones, and the median suture of the palatine bones.

  • Palatine rugae: Transverse ridges of mucosa on the hard palate

  • Soft palate: The caudal part of palate that is not supported by bone

  • Palatine tonsil (TON): Tonsil related to the lateral attachment of the soft palate

  • Tonsillectomy (TON/X): Surgical resection of the palatine tonsil

  • Tonsillar fossa: Depression containing the palatine tonsil

  • Semilunar fold: Mucosal fold from the ventrolateral aspect of the soft palate, forming the medial wall of the tonsillar fossa

  • Pharynx (PHA): Throat caudal to the oral cavity and divided into nasopharynx and oropharynx

  • Fauces: The fauces are defined as the lateral walls of the oropharynx that are located medial to the palatoglossal folds. The areas lateral to the palatoglossal fold, commonly involved in feline stomatitis, are not the fauces.

  • Palate defect (PDE): Acquired communication between the oral and nasal cavities along the hard or soft palate; surgical repair is abbreviated with PDE/R

  • Cleft lip (CFL): Congenital longitudinal defect of the upper lip or upper lip and most rostral hard palate (regardless of location); surgical repair is abbreviated with CFL/R

  • Cleft palate (CFP): Congenital longitudinal defect in the midline of the hard and soft palate; surgical repair is abbreviated with CFP/R

  • Cleft soft palate (CFS): Congenital longitudinal defect in the midline of the soft palate only; surgical repair is abbreviated with CFS/R

  • Unilateral soft palate defect (CFSU): Congenital longitudinal defect of the soft palate on one side only; surgical repair is abbreviated with CFSU/R

  • Soft palate hypoplasia (CFSH): Congenital decrease in length of the soft palate; surgical lengthening of the soft palate is abbreviated with CFSH/R

  • Traumatic cleft palate (CFT): Acquired longitudinal defect in the midline of the hard and/or soft palate resulting from trauma; surgical repair is abbreviated with CFT/R

  • Oronasal fistula (ONF): Acquired communication between the oral and nasal cavities along the upper dental arch; surgical repair is abbreviated with ONF/R

  • Oroantral fistula (OAF): Acquired communication between the oral cavity and maxillary sinus in pigs, ruminants and equines (also called oromaxillary fistula in equines); surgical repair is abbreviated with OAF/R

  • Elongated soft palate (ESP): Congenital increase in length of the soft palate; surgical reduction of the soft palate is abbreviated with ESP/R

  • Palatal obturator (POB): Prosthetic device for temporary or permanent closure of palate defects

  • Nose/nasal (N): Referring to the part of the face or facial region that contains the nostrils and nasal cavity

  • Discharge (DI): Action of discharging a liquid or other substance

  • Right nasal discharge (DI/ND): Discharge of material from the right nostril

  • Left nasal discharge (DI/NS): Discharge of material from the left nostril

  • Bilateral nasal discharge (DI/NU): Discharge of material from both nostrils

  • Right ocular discharge (DI/OD): Discharge of material from the right eye

  • Left ocular discharge (DI/OS): Discharge of material from the left eye

  • Bilateral ocular discharge (DI/OU): Discharge of material from both eyes

  • Naris stenosis (NAS): Pinched or narrow nostril

  • Nasopharyngeal stenosis (NPS): Constriction or narrowing of the nasopharyngeal passage; use NPS/R for nasopharyngeal stenosis repair

  • Nasopharyngeal polyp (N/POL): Benign mass emanating from the auditory tube into the nasopharynx, often having their origin in the middle ear

  • Nasal SCC (N/SCC): Nasal squamous cell carcinoma; use abbreviations under OM for other nasal tumors

  • Nasal lavage (N/LAV): Rinsing of the nasal and nasopharyngeal passages

  • Rhinoscopy (N/EN): Endoscopic imaging of nasal and nasopharyngeal tissues

  • Naroplasty (NAS/R): Surgical correction of a stenotic naris

  • Enophthalmos (ENO): Recession of the eyeball (within the orbit)

  • Exophthalmos (EXO): Protrusion of the eyeball (out of the orbit)

 

Salivary Glands and Lymph Nodes

  • Salivary gland (SG): An exocrine gland secreting saliva

  • Domestic animals have paired mandibular glands (or mandibular salivary glands) and mandibular lymph nodes. The term “submandibular,” as used in humans, is incorrect due the difference in topography of these structures. Domestic animals also have paired parotid, sublingual and zygomatic glands.

  • Ptyalism (PTY): Excessive flow of saliva; also called hypersalivation

  • Sublingual sialocele (SG/MUC/S): Mucus extravasation phenomenon manifesting in the sublingual region; also called ranula

  • Pharyngeal sialocele (SG/MUC/P): Mucus extravasation phenomenon manifesting in the pharyngeal region

  • Cervical sialocele (SG/MUC/C): Mucus extravasation phenomenon manifesting in the intermandibular or cervical region

  • Mucus retention cyst (SG/RC): Intraductal mucus accumulation with duct dilation resulting from obstruction of salivary flow (e.g., due to a sialolith)

  • Sialadenitis (SG/IN): Inflammation of a salivary gland

  • Sialadenosis (SG/ADS): Non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic enlargement of a salivary gland; also called sialosis

  • Necrotizing sialometaplasia (SG/NEC): Squamous metaplasia of the salivary gland ducts and lobules with ischemic necrosis of the salivary gland lobules; also called salivary gland infarction

  • Salivary gland adencarcinoma (SG/ADC): Adenocarcinoma arising from salivary glandular or ductal tissue; use abbreviations under OM for other salivary gland tumors

  • Sialocele (or salivary mucocele): Clinical term indicating a swelling that contains saliva and including mucus extravasation phenomenon and mucus retention cyst

  • Mucus extravasation phenomenon: Accumulation of saliva that leaked from a salivary duct into subcutaneous or submucosal tissue and consequent tissue reaction to saliva

  • Sialolithiasis (SG/SI): Condition characterized by the presence of one or more sialoliths, a calcareous concretion or calculus (stone) in the salivary duct or gland

  • Sialography (RAD/SG): Radiographic technique where a radiopaque contrast agent is infused into the ductal system of a salivary gland before imaging is performed

  • Salivary gland resection (SG/X): Surgical removal of a salivary gland

  • Marsupialization (MAR): Exteriorization of an enclosed cavity by resecting a portion of the cutaneous or mucosal wall and suturing the cut edges of the remaining wall to adjacent edges of the skin or mucosa, thereby creating a pouch; use SG/MAR for marsupialization of a sublingual or pharyngeal sialocele

  • Lymph node (LN): Lymphoid tissue that produces lymphocytes and has a capsule; filtering lymph fluid, as afferent lymph vessels enter the node and efferent lymph vessels leave the node

  • Tonsil (TON): Lymphoid tissue that produces lymphocytes but lacks a capsule; not filtering lymph fluid, as there are no afferent lymph vessels

  • Lymph node enlargement (LN/E): Palpable or visual enlargement of a lymph node

  • Regional metastasis (MET/R): Neoplastic spread to regional lymph node(s) confirmed by biopsy

  • Distant metastasis (MET/D): Neoplastic spread to distant sites confirmed by biopsy or diagnostic imaging

  • Lymph node resection (LN/X): Surgical removal of a lymph node

 

Normal Occlusion

Ideal occlusion can be described as perfect interdigitation of the upper and lower teeth. In the dog, the ideal tooth positions in the arches are defined by the occlusal, inter-arch and interdental relationships of the teeth of the archetypal dog (i.e. wolf). This ideal relationship with the mouth closed can be defined by the following:

  • Maxillary incisor teeth are all positioned rostral to the corresponding mandibular incisor teeth.

  • The crown cusps of the mandibular incisor teeth contact the cingulum of the maxillary incisor teeth.

  • The mandibular canine tooth is inclined labially and bisects the interproximal (interdental) space between the opposing maxillary third incisor tooth and canine tooth.

  • The maxillary premolar teeth do not contact the mandibular premolar teeth.

  • The crown cusps of the mandibular premolar teeth are positioned lingual to the arch of the maxillary premolar teeth.

  • The crown cusps of the mandibular premolar teeth bisect the interproximal (interdental) spaces rostral to the corresponding maxillary premolar teeth.

  • The mesial crown cusp of the maxillary fourth premolar tooth is positioned lateral to the space between the mandibular fourth premolar tooth and the mandibular first molar tooth.

Normal occlusion in cats is similar to dogs:

  • Maxillary incisor teeth are labial to the mandibular incisor teeth, with the incisal tips of the mandibular incisors contacting the cingula of the maxillary incisors or occluding just palatal to the maxillary incisors.

  • Mandibular canine teeth fit equidistant in the diastema between the maxillary third incisor teeth and the maxillary canine teeth, touching neither.

  • The incisor bite and canine interdigitation form the dental interlock.

  • Each mandibular premolar tooth is positioned mesial to the corresponding maxillary premolar tooth.

  • The maxillary second premolar tooth points in a space between the mandibular canine tooth and third premolar tooth.

  • The subsequent teeth interdigitate, with the mandibular premolars and first molar being situated lingual to the maxillary teeth.

  • The buccal surface of the mandibular first molar tooth occludes with the palatal surface of the maxillary fourth premolar tooth.

  • The maxillary first molar tooth is located distopalatal to the maxillary fourth premolar tooth.

 

Malocclusion

Malocclusion (MAL) is any deviation from normal occlusion described above. Malocclusion may be due to abnormal positioning of a tooth or teeth (dental malocclusion) or due to asymmetry or other deviation of bones that support the dentition (skeletal malocclusion). The diagnosis for a patient with malocclusion is abbreviated as: MAL (malocclusion) 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 (= malocclusion class designation)/specific malocclusion abbreviation and tooth or teeth number(s). Example: MAL1/CB/R202 for a dog with class 1 malocclusion and a rostral crossbite of the left maxillary second incisor. If multiple teeth have the same malocclusion, include the tooth numbers with a comma in between, e.g., MAL1/CB/R202,302.

  • Dental Malocclusion

    • Neutroclusion – Class 1 Malocclusion (MAL1): Malposition of one or more teeth regardless of the presence or absence of a normal rostrocaudal relationship of the upper and lower dental arches

    • Distoversion (MAL1/DV) describes a tooth that is in its anatomically correct position in the dental arch but which is abnormally angled in a distal direction.

    • Mesioversion (MAL1/MV) describes a tooth that is in its anatomically correct position in the dental arch but which is abnormally angled in a mesial direction.

    • Linguoversion (MAL1/LV) describes a tooth that is in its anatomically correct position in the dental arch but which is abnormally angled in a lingual direction.

    • Palatoversion (MAL1/PV) describes a tooth that is in its anatomically correct position in the dental arch but which is abnormally angled in a palatal direction.

    • Labioversion (MAL1/LABV) describes an incisor or canine tooth that is in its anatomically correct position in the dental arch but which is abnormally angled in a labial direction.

    • Buccoversion (MAL1/BV) describes a premolar or molar tooth that is in its anatomically correct position in the dental arch but which is abnormally angled in a buccal direction.

    • Crossbite (CB) describes a malocclusion in which a mandibular tooth or teeth have a more buccal or labial position than the antagonist maxillary tooth. It can be classified as rostral or caudal.

    • In rostral crossbite (CB/R): One or more of the mandibular incisor teeth is labial to the opposing maxillary incisor teeth when the mouth is closed. Similar to posterior crossbite in human terminology.

    • In caudal crossbite (CB/C): One or more of the mandibular cheek teeth is buccal to the opposing maxillary cheek teeth when the mouth is closed. Similar to posterior crossbite in human terminology.

  • Symmetrical Skeletal Malocclusion

    • Mandibular Distoclusion – Class 2 Malocclusion (MAL2): An abnormal rostrocaudal relationship between the dental arches in which the mandibular arch occludes caudal to its normal position relative to the maxillary arch.

    • Mandibular mesioclusion – Class 3 Malocclusion (MAL3): An abnormal rostralcaudal relationship between the dental arches in which the mandibular arch occludes rostral to its normal position relative to the maxillary arch.

  • Asymmetrical Skeletal Malocclusion

    • Maxillomandibular Asymmetry – Class 4 Malocclusion (MAL4): Asymmetry in a rostrocaudal, side-to-side, or dorsoventral direction

    • Maxillomandibular asymmetry in a rostrocaudal direction (MAL4/RC) occurs when mandibular mesioclusion or distoclusion is present on one side of the face while the contralateral side retains normal dental alignment.

    • Maxillomandibular asymmetry in a side-to-side direction (MAL4/STS) occurs when there is loss of the midline alignment of the maxilla and mandible.

    • Maxillomandibular asymmetry in a dorsoventral direction (MAL4/DV) results in an open bite, which is defined as an abnormal vertical space between opposing dental arches when the mouth is closed.

    • The expression “wry bite” is a layman term that has been used to describe a wide variety of unilateral occlusal abnormalities. Because “wry bite” is non-specific, its use is not recommended.

 

Management of Malocclusion

Orthodontics is a specialty in dentistry and oral surgery that is concerned with the prevention, interception and correction of malocclusion.

  • Preventive orthodontics is concerned with the client’s education, the development of the dentition and maxillofacial structures, the diagnostic procedures undertaken to predict malocclusion and the therapeutic procedures instituted to prevent the onset of malocclusion. Preventive procedures are undertaken in anticipation of development of a problem. Examples of preventive procedures include:

    • Client education about time tables on exfoliation of deciduous teeth and eruption of permanent teeth

    • Fiberotomy (severing of gingival fibers around a permanent tooth to prevent its relapse after corrective orthodontics)

    • Operculectomy (surgical removal of an operculum to enable eruption of a permanent tooth)

    • Extraction of a tooth that could pose a risk to development of malocclusion

  • Interceptive orthodontics is concerned with the elimination of a developing or established malocclusion. Interceptive procedures are typically undertaken in the growing patient. Examples of interceptive procedures include:

    • Crown reduction of a permanent tooth in malocclusion

    • Extraction of a tooth in malocclusion

  • Corrective orthodontics is concerned with the correction of malocclusion without loss of the maloccluded tooth or part of its crown. This is accomplished by means of tooth movement. Examples of corrective procedures include:

    • Surgical repositioning of a tooth

    • Orthognathic surgery to treat skeletal malocclusion

    • Passive movement of a tooth using an inclined plane

    • Active movement of a tooth using an elastic chain

 

Orthodontic Treatment Terminology

  • Treatment plan (TP): Written document that outlines the progression of therapy (advantages, disadvantages, costs, alternatives, outcome and duration of treatment)

  • Impression (IM): Detailed imprint of hard and/or soft tissues that is formed with specific types of impression materials

  • Full-mouth impression (IM/F): Imprints of the dentition and/or surrounding soft tissues of the upper and lower dental arches

  • Diagnostic cast (DC): Positive replica created by pouring a liquid material into an impression or placing an impression into a liquid material; once the material has hardened, the cast is removed and used for the purpose of study and treatment planning; also called die (DC/D) when made from an impression of a particular tooth/area of interest or stone model

  • (DC/SM) when made from a full-mouth impression

  • Bite registration (BR): Impression used to record a patient’s occlusion, which is then used to articulate diagnostic casts

  • Fiberotomy (FT): Severing gingival fibers around a permanent tooth to prevent its relapse after corrective orthodontics

  • Operculectomy (OP): Surgical removal of an operculum to enable eruption of a permanent tooth

  • Surgical repositioning (SR): Repositioning of a developmentally displaced tooth

  • Orthognathic surgery (OS): Surgical procedure to alter relationships of dental arches typically performed to correct skeletal malocclusion

  • Bracket/button/hook (OA/BKT): Device made of metal or plastic that is bonded to the tooth surface and aids in the attachment of wires or elastics; use OA/CMB if custom-made

  • Elastic chain/tube/thread (OA/EC): Orthodontic elastics used to move teeth

  • Orthodontic wire (OA/WIR): Metal wire with ‘memory’ used to move teeth

  • Arch bar (OA/AR): Device attached to one dental arch to move individual teeth in between the device’s attachments

  • Orthodontic appliance (OA): Device attached to a tooth or teeth to move a tooth or teeth

  • Orthodontic appliance adjustment (OA/A): Abbreviation used at the time of adjustment of the orthodontic appliance

  • Orthodontic appliance installation (OA/I): Abbreviation used at the time of installation of the orthodontic appliance

  • Orthodontic appliance removal (OA/R): Abbreviation used at the time of removal of the orthodontic appliance

  • Orthodontic counseling (OC): Client communication on the genetic basis, diagnosis and treatment of malocclusion and the legal and ethical implications of orthodontics

  • Ball therapy (BTH): Removable orthodontic device in the form of a ball or cone-shaped rubber toy (for example to passively move linguoverted mandibular canine teeth)

  • Inclined plane (IP): Fixed orthodontic device made of acrylic (IP/A), composite (IP/C) or metal (IP/M) with sloping planes (for example to passively move linguoverted mandibular canine teeth)

  • Orthodontic recheck (OR): Examination of a patient treated with an orthodontic appliance

 

Equine Dental Anatomical Structures

  • Infundibulum (INF): Enamel cup-like infolding from the occlusal surface in incisors (one) and maxillary cheek teeth (two)

  • Diastema (D): Space between teeth in a jaw

  • Pulp horn (PH): An elongation of the pulp chamber extending towards the cusps of brachyodont teeth; an elongation of the common pulp chamber extending towards the occlusal surface of equine cheek teeth (numbers refer to the Du Toit numbering system, e.g., PH1, PH2, etc.)

  • Regular secondary dentin: Dentin produced on the periphery of the pulp after the tooth has come into occlusion which gradually reduces the size of the pulp horns

  • Irregular secondary dentin: Physiological dentin that is laid down last, sub-occlusally in the center of the pulp horn which prevents pulp exposure with normal tooth wear

  • Sinus (SIN): Paranasal cavity within a bone

  • Conchofrontal sinus (SIN/CF): Compound term for the frontal sinus and the dorsal conchal sinus, which are continuous in equines

  • Caudal maxillary sinus (SIN/CMX): Cavity in equines separated by the maxillary septum from the rostral maxillary sinus; communicating with the frontal and sphenopalatine sinuses

  • Rostral maxillary sinus (SIN/RMX): Cavity in equines separated by the maxillary septum from the caudal maxillary sinus; opening freely into the ventral conchal sinus

  • Sphenopalatine sinus (SIN/SP): Continued cavity formed by the sphenoid and palatine sinuses in equines; opening into the caudal maxillary sinus

  • Ventral conchal sinus (SIN/VC): Cavity enclosed by the caudal part of the ventral concha

 

Equine Dental Abnormalities and Procedures

  • Tooth elongation (T/EL): Abnormal intraoral and/or periapical extension of the coronal and/or apical portion of the tooth

  • Open diastema (D/O): Pathological widening of the interproximal space that has similar widths at the gingival margin and occlusal surface

  • Valve diastema (D/V): Pathological widening of the interproximal space that is considerably wider at the gingival margin than at the occlusal surface

  • Temporal teratoma (TT): Vestigial dental structure in the vicinity of the temporal bone as a result of failure of closure of the first branchial cleft usually associated with swelling or a sinus tract at the base of the pinna of the ear; also known as heterotopic polyodontia or “ear tooth” and erroneously called dentigerous cyst in the horse

  • Pulp horn defect (PH/D): Pulp horn exposure or defective secondary dentin overlying a pulp horn noted on the occlusal surface of cheek teeth which may or may not be vital

  • Infundibular caries (CA/INF): Caries of the maxillary cheek teeth infundibulae; grade 1 involving cementum only; grade 2 also involving enamel; grade 3 also involving dentin; grade 4 affecting the structural integrity of the tooth; use CA/INF/D for distal infundibular caries and CA/INF/M for mesial infundibular caries

  • Peripheral caries (CA/PER): – Caries affecting the periphery of the cheek teeth; grade 1 involving cementum only; grade 2 also involving enamel; grade 3 also involving dentin; grade 4 affecting the structural integrity of the tooth

  • Shear mouth (SHE): Abnormally increased occlusal angulation of the cheek teeth; for example >40° for mandibular cheek teeth and >25° for maxillary cheek teeth

  • Sinusitis (SIN/IN): Inflammation of the sinus (e.g., SIN/IN/RMX = rostral maxillary sinusitis)

  • Primary sinusitis: Inflammation of the sinus associated with bacterial infection of the sinuses without any detectable predisposing cause

  • Secondary sinusitis: Inflammation of the sinus associated with bacterial infection where a predisposing cause such as periapical disease or intra-sinus growth is present

  • Dental sinusitis: Sinusitis caused by periapical disease of the caudal cheek teeth

  • Diastema odontoplasty (or widening) (D/ODY): Removal of interproximal dental tissue to avoid entrapment of food between teeth

  • Sinoscopy (SIN/EN): Endoscopic examination of the sinus using a trephine portal

  • Sinus flap (SIN/F): Surgical access to the sinus via a skin and bone flap; use SIN/CF/F for a chonchofrontal sinus flap and SIN/MX/F for a maxillary sinus flap

  • Sinus lavage (SIN/LAV): Flushing of the sinus

 

Equine Tooth Extraction and Related Procedures

  • Trephination (TRP): Surgical access to a structure of interest via skin incision and removal of a circular piece of bone using a trephine

  • Sinus trephination (SIN/TRP): Access to the sinus via a trephined hole

  • Closed extraction with odontoplasty (XS/ODY): Removal of interproximal crown tissue to facilitate transoral extraction of a tooth

  • Extraction of a tooth after apicoectomy and repulsion (XSS/APX/RPL): Extraction of a tooth after apicoectomy and repulsion which is performed via TRP, SIN/TRP or SIN/F

  • Transbuccal extraction (XSS/BUC): Extraction of a tooth after buccotomy

  • Transbuccal extraction with alveolectomy (XSS/BUC/ALV): Extraction of a tooth after buccotomy and alveolectomy

  • Transcommissural extraction (XSS/COM): Extraction of a tooth after commissurotomy

  • Transcommissural extraction with alveolectomy (XSS/COM/ALV): Extraction of a tooth after commissurotomy and alveolectomy

  • Minimally invasive buccotomy extraction (XSS/MIB): Extraction of a tooth via minimally invasive buccotomy (small incision made for introduction of straight instrumentation to elevate, section or drill into a cheek tooth for the purpose of facilitating its transoral extraction)

  • Extraction via repulsion (XSS/RPL): Extraction of a tooth after repulsion which is performed via TRP, SIN/TRP or SIN/F

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